Question and answers for students of BBA, BMS , B.Com, MBA , MMS (Computer Fundamentals : Pradeep K. Sinha, Priti Sinha)
In this chapter you will learn about:
Characteristic features of computers
Computers’ evolution to their present form
Characteristic features of each computer generation
Q1. What is a Computer?
Answer: The word computer comes from the word “compute”, which means, “to calculate” . Thereby, a computer is an electronic device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed.
A computer is also called a data processor because it can store, process, and retrieve data whenever desired.
Q2. What is Data Processing?
Answer: The activity of processing data using a computer is called data processing.
Data————Capture Data—————Manipulate Data————–Output Results———–Information
Data is raw material used as input and information is processed data obtained as output of data processing.
Q3.Describe the Characteristics of Computers.
Answer: The followings are the characteristics of Computers:
1) Automatic: Given a job, computer can work on it automatically without human interventions
2) Speed: Computer can perform data processing jobs very fast, usually measured in microseconds (10-6), nanoseconds (10-9), and picoseconds (10-12).
3) Accuracy: Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. Computer errors caused due to incorrect input data or unreliable programs are often referred to as Garbage- In-Garbage-Out (GIGO).
4) Diligence: Computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling
5) Versatility: Computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps.
6) Power of Remembering: Computer can store and recall any amount of information because of its secondary storage capability. It forgets or loses certain information only when it is asked to do so.
7) No I.Q.: A computer does only what it is programmed to do. It cannot take its own decision in this regard
8) No Feelings: Computers are devoid of emotions. Their judgement is based on the instructions given to them in the form of programs that are written by us (human beings)
Q4.Describe briefly the Evolution of Computers.
Answer: Blasé Pascal invented the first mechanical adding machine in 1642.
Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented the first calculator for multiplication in 1671
Keyboard machines originated in the United States around 1880
Around 1880, Herman Hollerith came up with the concept of punched cards that were extensively used as input media until late 1970s.
Charles Babbage is considered to be the father of modern digital computers. He designed “Difference Engine” in 1822
He designed a fully automatic analytical engine in 1842 for performing basic arithmetic functions
His efforts established a number of principles that are fundamental to the design of any digital computer.
Q5. Name Some Well Known Early Computers.
The Mark I Computer (1937-44)
The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939-42)
The ENIAC (1943-46)
The EDVAC (1946-52)
The EDSAC (1947-49)
Manchester Mark I (1948)
The UNIVAC I (1951)