Q1. Mr. Varun Shah is the CEO of a new event company setup six months back. The Company has around 100 employees working in it. In order to discuss a new event or growth of the firm or any past events with the managers what mode of verbal communication must Mr. Varun use and why? (10 marks)
Communication is a societal activity; people in society exchange their thoughts, ideas, feelings, emotions, etc. through different manners depending upon the occasions, context, type of message, background of the interacting persons. For example, when a leader addresses a rally, he/she communicates mainly orally, but just to emphasise certain points, he/she may use gestures or facial expressions also. While teaching in the class, teacher communicates both orally and writing. Sometimes, agreement with a suggestion is indicated by nod of a disagreement may also be shown by moving head in both directions. A warning may be communicated in different ways, orally, in writing or over by facial expression. There are all ways of communication. From this, it may be concluded that ways of communication can be broadly classified into two types:
1. Verbal communication and
2. Nonverbal communication
Each of these types can be further sub-divided into different types. In this unit, you will read different types of communications.
In verbal communication words of a particular language are used for passing the message. For example, while teaching in a class teacher speaks, writes on the blackboard or some time, he/she may use audio/visual aids, such as the power-point to explain/emphasise certain points. All these modes come under the category of verbal communication. Thus, verbal communication is of four types.
• Oral communication
• Written communication
• Visual and Audio-visual communication
• Silence Let us learn them in detail.
In this mode, communication is done through spoken words. It may be face-to-face talk, telephonic talk, video-chat, television, radio or chat over internet, such as Skype or Whatsapp. Personal traits such as clarity of pronunciation, pitch, slang, volume, speed, etc. influence this mode of conversation. It is an effective form of communication. For example, when the teacher teaches in the class, it is a face-to-face communication.
During Covid-19 pandemic, classes were held online using Zoom, Google meet or Microsoft Team platforms. It is also face-to-face verbal communication as the teacher and students could see each other although they were not present in the class bodily. When two persons talk on Skype or WhatsApp, they communicate face-to-face verbally. In telephonic talk, the communication is verbal although it is not face-to-face as they cannot see each other.
Advantages of Oral Communication
There are certain advantages of oral communication mode which are stated below:
• High level of transparency and understanding
• Quick feedback
• Time and other resources saving
• Helpful for teamwork
• Best for confidential exchange of information
• Quick resolution of disputes
• Receptive and encouraging
• Facial expressions and body language visible
Disadvantages of Oral Communication
But at the same time, there are some disadvantages also of oral communication mode which are stated below:
• Informal and no proof of decision, if any
• Poor personal traits, such as stammering, weaker command on language, slang, no coherence visible
• Less authentic
• May consume long time in meetings
• Requires great attentiveness and receptivity
• No legal standing
Methods to Improve Oral Communication Skills
1. Speak in a clear, confident strong voice: one should speak in a confident, clear and strong voice so that it is audible to everyone in the audience. Keep the pace of your speaking average, not very slow not very fast. While speaking, face the audience.
2. Be coherent: One should speak coherently with concentration on your subject only. Try not to be distracted from your subject, try to prevent other thoughts at that time.
3. Avoid using filler words: It is better to pause for a second rather than using filler words, such “Yeah”, “So”, “Um”, “Like” frequent use of filler words disturb coherence and distract audience. 4. Be an active listener: Verbal communication is a two-way process; you should therefore, be an active listener too. Try to understand a question/query quickly, because it looks odd to ask to repeat the question.
Essentials of Oral Communication
The following are the essential factors that one should follow to be effective in oral communication:
1. Clear pronunciation: The message should be pronounced clearly, otherwise the receiver may not understand the words of the sender.
2. Brevity: A brief message is considered the most effective factor since receiver’s retention capacity is limited in oral communication. The sender should be as brief as possible.
3. Precision: The sender should ensure exactness of the message. Only relevant issue should be included in the message and that too with accuracy.
4. Conviction: The sender should believe in the facts that are being communicated to others. The oral presentation should evince confidence of the sender.
5. Logical sequence: The sender should present the message logically. The points to be spoken first and what should follow to convey the meaning and motives of the sender effectively to the receiver need to be looked into.
6. Appropriate word choice: Words are symbols. They have no fixed or universal meanings. The meanings of words at that moment are in the mind of the sender. Therefore, the sender should select the words which are suitable and understandable to the other party and those which convey the same meanings as the sender wanted.
7. Use natural voice: Natural voice conveys integrity and conviction. It is advised to use natural voice in oral communication.
8. Communicate with right person: It is essential to know whom to communicate. If you communicate a right message to a wrong person, it may lead to lot of problems. Be sure in recognizing the right person to communicate with.
9. Do not get guided by assumptions: Never assume that your listener has knowledge already on the subject matter. You may be wrong many times in such assumptions. You can be good only when you are confident in your message without any omission.
10. Look for feedback: When communicating, if you are smart enough in collecting feedback verbally or non-verbally, you can quickly alter the message, if necessary.
11. Allow to ask questions: It is important to give freedom to the receiver to rise questions whenever he feels ambiguity or confusion. In a way, the communicator should encourage the receiver to ask questions. Such questions are opportunities to clarify doubts.
In this method, communication is written in words or symbols and is transmitted via e-mail, letter, memo, etc. In recent years, many social media platforms based on Internet are available, where written communication is posted. This mode of transmission is meant for mass circulation, instead for an individual written communication is most commonly used in business and its contents, vocabulary, style, precision and clarity are very important achieving its objective.
Advantages of Written Communication
The written communication has several advantages:
• It is a permanent record and can be used as reference in future.
• The sender can write and re-write to make it error free before sending.
• The presence of the sender and the receiver is not required.
• Sometimes there are complex matters that cannot be talked over in a satisfactory manner. In the written communication, complex matters can be explained.
• Being a written document, there are no chances of misconception.
• The message can be sent to a large number of people.
Disadvantages of Written Communication
The written communication has some disadvantages too:
• It is time consuming.
• If the sender does not have good command on the language, he/she has to struggle to write the message.
• A poorly written communication may create poor impression.
• Feedback is not instant.
• There is no personal touch.
Principles of Written Communication
The following are the six principles of written communication.:
1. Clarity: Written communication requires clarity of thought and clarity of expression like using simple words, active construction, avoiding ambiguity and Jargon, using simple sentences, etc.
2. Completeness: The writer needs to check the completeness of the message. He should verify whether all questions are answered in the message or not.
3. Conciseness: Brevity is very important for effective writing. The writer should include only relevant facts and avoid repetitions.
4. Consideration: This principle advocates that the writer should convey respect to the reader in his writing. It is always better to emphasize positive and pleasant facts. The writings should reflect the integrity of the writer.
5. Courtesy: According to this principle, courtesy will be observed through promptness in writing and giving replies, avoidance of imitating expressions, sincere apology for an omission and generous thanks for a favour.
6. Correctness: According to this principle, the writer should give correct facts in the message. The message should be sent to the reader at the right time and in the correct style. Written communication is accurate and serves as a permanent record. One can reach a large number of people through this media simultaneously. You can also fix responsibility to the people though this communication. However, written communication is much time consuming and more expensive when compared to oral communication.
Visual and Audio-Visual Communication
It has been pointed out above that written or oral communication alone has certain limitations which may create poor impression on the recipient and the desired result is not achieved. In order to overcome this difficulty, many businesses organization now use various visual aids, such as pictures, progress charts, maps, graphs, etc. These communication pictures in aid to the oral presentation can create powerful impression, as a proverb goes, “A picture is worth a thousand words”. Sometimes, presentation of statistics in words alone is not sufficient to create the desired impact. For example, in a meeting of the company directors, CEO wants to emphasise that sales of the company products increased four times over this time last year, his words alone may not get the desired attention. But he/she also displays a bar graph depicting growth in sales figures, it will have dramatic effect on the audience. But in such presentation, care should be taken that there is no contradiction between words and the picture. Audio-visual communication is a combination of sight and sound. Now big business organizations use this mode of communication extensively particularly for training programmes, publicity, mass education and mass propaganda. Short telephone are frequently used to popularize their production and for advertisement on TV. The working of a new product, such as instrument or software can be effectively demonstrated with the help of this mode of communication.
Advantages of Visual and Audio Visual Communication
There are certain advantages of visual and audio visual communication mode which are discussed below:
• Popular: Technological development has facilitated audio-visual communication to become very popular.
• Supports oral communication: The use of graphs, pictures and diagrams etc. makes the communication more attractive and easily graspable.
• Easy presentation of complex data: Complex data can be presented in an easy and understandable manner in the form of graphs, pictures and diagrams.
• Helpful for rural clients: Visual and audio visual communication is very helpful particularly for the rural population where the percentage of the illiterate and semiliterate people is higher. They can understand the information presented visually in a better manner.
• Saves time: It saves time as a large number of people can see the presentation at the same time.
• Decision making is quicker: As the data are presented visually, they can be understood and followed more quickly. The queries can be clarified during the presentation itself. It makes the decision-making process quicker.
References : Compiled from various books of BBA & MBA for helping students to write answers on their own.
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