Discuss the role of organizational commitment to facilitate the expression of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) as an extra role behaviour.
Organizational commitment plays a significant role in facilitating the expression of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which refers to discretionary behaviors that go beyond an employee’s formal job description and contribute positively to the organization. When employees have a strong sense of commitment to their organization, they are more likely to engage in OCB. Here’s how organizational commitment facilitates the expression of OCB:
Affective Commitment and OCB: Affective commitment, driven by an emotional attachment and identification with the organization, is positively related to OCB. Employees with high levels of affective commitment genuinely care about the organization’s well-being and are more likely to engage in behaviors that benefit the organization, even when such behaviors are not explicitly required. They go the extra mile voluntarily, contributing to the organization’s success through OCB.
Example: An employee with a strong affective commitment might actively participate in team meetings, share innovative ideas, and provide support to colleagues beyond their formal role. They engage in OCB because they genuinely care about the organization’s success and want to contribute positively.
Normative Commitment and OCB: Normative commitment, driven by a sense of obligation or moral responsibility to the organization, is also positively associated with OCB. Employees with high levels of normative commitment feel a duty to help and support their organization. They engage in OCB as a way to fulfill their perceived obligations and reciprocate the organization’s investment in their career development.
Example: An employee with strong normative commitment might volunteer for additional tasks or projects, assist coworkers in need, or take the initiative to improve work processes. They engage in OCB because they believe it is the right thing to do and feel a sense of duty towards the organization.
Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and OCB: Organizational commitment is influenced by employees’ perceptions of the support they receive from the organization. When employees feel supported and valued, their commitment to the organization increases, which, in turn, promotes OCB. Positive organizational support creates an environment where employees are more willing to engage in discretionary behaviors that benefit the organization.
Example: If an organization demonstrates support by recognizing and rewarding OCB, providing opportunities for employee growth, and creating a positive work culture, employees are more likely to exhibit OCB. They feel valued and appreciated, which strengthens their commitment and motivates them to engage in extra-role behaviors.
Trust and OCB: Organizational commitment is closely related to trust between employees and the organization. When employees have a high level of trust, they are more likely to exhibit OCB. Trust fosters a sense of psychological safety, which encourages employees to take risks and engage in behaviors that benefit the organization.
Example: Employees who trust their organization are more likely to engage in OCB, such as offering suggestions for improvement, participating in cross-functional collaboration, or representing the organization positively in interactions with external stakeholders.
Organizations can encourage OCB by promoting a positive work environment, establishing strong relationships with employees, providing opportunities for growth and development, recognizing and rewarding OCB, and fostering a culture of trust and support. These initiatives contribute to higher levels of organizational commitment, which, in turn, facilitate the expression of OCB as employees willingly go beyond their formal roles to contribute to the organization’s success.
Explain the role of OCB in enhancing the quality of employee output.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) plays a crucial role in enhancing the quality of employee output. OCB refers to discretionary behaviors that go beyond an employee’s formal job description and contribute positively to the organization. Here’s how OCB enhances the quality of employee output:
Improved Work Relationships: OCB involves behaviors such as helping and supporting colleagues, being respectful, and maintaining positive work relationships. When employees engage in OCB, it creates a cooperative and supportive work environment. Positive work relationships foster effective communication, collaboration, and teamwork, leading to improved coordination and synergy among employees. This, in turn, enhances the overall quality of work output.
Enhanced Customer Service: OCB can have a direct impact on customer service quality. Employees who engage in OCB are more likely to go the extra mile to meet customer needs and provide exceptional service. They may engage in behaviors such as proactively resolving customer issues, showing empathy, and exceeding customer expectations. This high-quality customer service leads to increased customer satisfaction, loyalty, and positive word-of-mouth, which benefits the organization’s reputation and success.
Increased Innovation and Problem-Solving: OCB can foster a culture of innovation and problem-solving within the organization. When employees engage in OCB, they demonstrate a willingness to contribute ideas, share knowledge, and offer suggestions for improvement. This openness and proactive behavior create an environment conducive to creativity and innovation. Employees feel empowered to take risks, propose new solutions, and continuously seek ways to enhance processes and outcomes, leading to improved quality of work output.
Higher Productivity and Efficiency: OCB can positively impact employee productivity and efficiency. When employees engage in OCB, they demonstrate a higher level of engagement, commitment, and initiative in their work. They willingly invest additional effort and time to help colleagues, take on additional tasks, and contribute to organizational goals. This increased productivity and efficiency result in higher-quality work output, as tasks are completed in a timely manner with attention to detail.
Positive Organizational Culture: OCB contributes to the development of a positive organizational culture. When employees engage in OCB, it reinforces and promotes organizational values such as teamwork, cooperation, and mutual support. This positive culture fosters a sense of pride, satisfaction, and commitment among employees. They are more likely to identify with the organization, align their behavior with its goals, and strive for excellence in their work, ultimately enhancing the quality of their output.
Organizations can encourage OCB by recognizing and rewarding these behaviors, promoting a positive work environment, providing opportunities for employee growth and development, and fostering a culture that values collaboration and mutual support. By fostering a culture of OCB, organizations can harness the positive impact it has on work relationships, customer service, innovation, productivity, and overall work quality.
Explain OCB in details.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) refers to discretionary behaviors that employees engage in voluntarily, which are not formally rewarded or part of their job description, but contribute positively to the organization’s functioning and effectiveness. OCB represents actions that go beyond the basic requirements of the job and reflect an employee’s willingness to support the organization and its members. Here are some key aspects of OCB:
Voluntary Behavior: OCB is characterized by its voluntary nature. Employees engage in these behaviors by their own choice and willingness, without any explicit or formal requirement from the organization. These behaviors are driven by the employee’s intrinsic motivation to contribute to the organization’s success and well-being.
Non-Contractual: OCB is not explicitly specified in an employee’s job contract or formal job description. It goes beyond the formal obligations and expectations associated with the employee’s role. OCB represents discretionary actions that employees perform as a form of extra-role behavior, beyond what is contractually required.
Positive Contribution: OCB involves actions that benefit the organization, its members, or the work environment. These behaviors contribute to the overall functioning and effectiveness of the organization. OCB can take various forms, including helping coworkers, providing support and assistance, volunteering for additional tasks, participating in problem-solving, offering suggestions for improvement, representing the organization positively to external stakeholders, and adhering to organizational norms and rules.
Contextual Performance: OCB is often associated with contextual performance, which refers to behaviors that create a positive work environment and support the smooth functioning of the organization. While the primary job performance focuses on task-related activities, OCB encompasses behaviors that are supportive, cooperative, and promote harmonious relationships within the workplace.
Informal Norms: OCB is influenced by the informal norms and social dynamics within the organization. These behaviors are often guided by the perceived expectations of colleagues, supervisors, and the organizational culture. Employees observe and learn from others’ behaviors and adjust their own actions accordingly, contributing to a collective norm of engaging in OCB.
Beneficiaries of OCB: OCB benefits various stakeholders within the organization. It can enhance workgroup cohesion and collaboration, improve interpersonal relationships, increase organizational productivity, foster a positive work environment, enhance customer service, and contribute to the organization’s reputation and success.
Example 1: An employee who consistently goes out of their way to help colleagues with their work, provide guidance, and offer support during challenging times is demonstrating OCB. Although this behavior is not explicitly required in their job description, it contributes to the overall effectiveness and well-being of the team.
Example 2: Another example of OCB is when an employee takes the initiative to suggest process improvements that can enhance efficiency and effectiveness. They proactively identify areas for optimization, share their ideas with the relevant stakeholders, and contribute to enhancing organizational performance.
Organizations can encourage OCB by fostering a positive work culture that values and recognizes these behaviors, promoting open communication, providing opportunities for employee involvement and development, and rewarding and acknowledging employees who engage in OCB. By cultivating a culture that encourages and appreciates OCB, organizations can harness the benefits of these discretionary behaviors and create a more productive and positive work environment.