Shiego Shingo, a Japanese JIT authority and engineer at the Toyota Motor Company identifies seven wastes as being the targets of continuous improvement in production process. By attending to these wastes, the improvement is achieved.
- Waste of over production eliminate by reducing set-up times, synchronizing quantities and timing between processes, layout problems. Make only what is needed now.
- Waste of waiting eliminate bottlenecks and balance uneven loads by flexible work force and equipment.
- Waste of transportation establish layouts and locations to make handling and transport unnecessary if possible. Minimise transportation and handling if not possible to eliminate.
- Waste of processing itself question regarding the reasons for existence of the product and then why each process is necessary.
- Waste of stocks reducing all other wastes reduces stocks.
- Waste of motion study for economy and consistency. Economy improves productivity and consistency improves quality. First improve the motions, then mechanise or automate otherwise. There is danger of automating the waste.
- Waste of making defective products develop the production process to prevent defects from being produced, so as to eliminate inspection. At each process, do not accept defects and makes no defects. Make the process fail-safe. A quantify process always yield quality
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